Thursday, December 24, 2009

- Breast feeding.

Breast feeding
(International Breastfeeding Symbol)

- Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from human breasts.

Advantages of Breast Feeding
( the breast is the best)

(1)For Infants:-
"Human breast milk is the healthiest form
of milk for human babies"
(1) How?

*It is biochemically the most suitable for infant feeding at any stage (colostrum,transitional and mature milk).
*It contain various elements required for nutrition of infant.
*It is hypoallergic (2) and may reduce subsequent atopic diseases .
*Naturally stored at room temperature.
*Available whenever needed and automatically adjusted to infant needs.
*Anti infective properties how?
- It is naturally sterile as no preparation nor contamination.
- It contain various antimicrobial factors :-
  • During breastfeeding antibodies pass to the baby (3)(eg IgA which increase ­mucosal defense(4)by prevention of micro-organisms from adherence to gut mucosa(5)) .
  • Proteins: as "Lactoferrin" which bind Fe that help growth of E-coli so lacto ferrin is Bacteriostatic for E-coli also lacto ferrin bind Vit B12 binding proteins which bind vit B12.
  • low Buffering capacity of human milk which prevent neutralization of stomach Hcl that act as natural barrier against infection.
  • Bifidus factor: which metabolize lactose to lactic acid and acetic acid so lowering of PH so inhibit of bacterial growth in GIT.
  • Cells of immunity (e.g granulocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes(B cells synthesize IGA and T cells transfer delayed hypersenesitivity as  tuberculin responsiveness))
  • Complement (may be involved with the secretory IGA for inducing bacteriolysis).
  • Enzymes: Lysozymes, peroxidase ( attack cell wall of bacteria).
  • Interferon and antiviral agents.
  • Bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against Giardia lamblial and amoebic infections)(5).
*Psychological advantage:- Closest and More relationship satisfaction between mother and baby.
*Allow better growth as it contains specific growth factors " for GIT,CNS,epidermis".
*It is safer due to less incidence of:-
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants.
  • Diabetes.
  • Protein Energy Malnutrition.
  • Gastro-enteritis.
*Breastfeeding in infants is associated with higher intelligence later in life due to better neurological development as it contains long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
*Low renal salt load.
*It contains long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which is important of retinal development.
*Calcium : Phosphorus ratio is 2:1 which optimal for absorption so prevent hypocalcemic tetany.
*Easily digestible due to low cured tension(2).

(2)For Mother:-

*Breast milk is Cheaper than any form of feeding.
*It needs least effort for preparation just local cleaning using plain water.
*Emotional satisfaction ( less incidence of depression)
*Natural contraception.
*Decrease risk of postpartum hemorrhage.
*Less incidence of breast cancer,endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer (6).
*Weight loss (highly variable among lactating women):- As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight (7).

WHO and UNICEF now recommend that every infant should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life,with continued breastfeeding for up to two years or longer.

(1)Picciano M (2001). "Nutrient composition of human milk". Pediatr Clin North Am 48 (1): 53–67. doi:10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70285-6. PMID 11236733.
(2)Mead MN (2008). "Contaminants in human milk: weighing the risks against the benefits of breastfeeding". Environ Health Perspect 116 (10): A426–34. PMID 18941560.
(3)"Breastfeeding". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
(4) Glass RI, Svennerholm AM, Stoll BJ, et al. (1983). "Protection against cholera in breast-fed children by antibodies in breast milk". N. Engl. J. Med. 308 (23): 1389–92. PMID 6843632.
(5)WilliamC .H eird (2007),NELSON TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRICS, I8/E,Chapte42,Feeding of Infants and Children,p.g 215
(6)Gartner LM, et al. (2005). "Breastfeeding and the use of human milk [policy statement]". Pediatrics 115 (2): 496–506. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2491. PMID 15687461.
(7) Dewey K, Heinig M, Nommsen L (1993). "Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation". Am J Clin Nutr 58 (2): 162–6. PMID 8338042.
(8)Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding,SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES,WHO,Introsuction,p.g 3.


  1. Weight loss (highly variable among lactating women):- As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight

    معلومة جديدة وعاجباني
    تسلم يا دكتور
    بالتوفيق ان شاء الله

  2. روووومي
    الله يكرمك يا فندم
    ماهو دا مش كلامى كمان يعنى المرجع موجود :)رقم 6

    بالتوفيق إن شاء الله


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